Marius died on 13 January, just 17 days into his seventh consulship. While the move was openly criticised at the time, it would later become standard practice for the Roman army. Julia outlived her husband and died in 69BC. The town had been given Roman Citizenship not long before his birth in 188BC. Gaius Marius was born in 157BC in the Italian town of Aprinum, which is located in... 2: The Legend of the Eagle’s Nest This is reinforced by the fact that both Gaius Marius and his older brother, Marcus Marius, would be able to enter Roman public life. Marius was elected on the equestrian and popular vote and, to Metellusâ bitter chagrin, appointed by a popular bill to succeed Metellus at once in the African command. The town had been conquered by the Romans in the late 4th century BC and was given Roman citizenship without voting rights. He helps maintain the triremes that have allowed the powerful Roman navy to conquer all challengers in the Mediterranean. Gaius Marius was born near Arpinum, and was the son of a small plebeian farmer. He had been consul every year since 104, and he was elected again the year 100. A clutch of eagle’s eggs would commonly only have two or three eggs in it so to make such a discovery was incredibly rare. He was the only man in history to have attacked and kept both Athens and Rome.. Sulla unconstitutionally marched his armies into Rome and defeated his enemy Gaius Marius in battle. When Q. Caecilius Metellus Numidicus was sent to Africa in 109 to deal with Jugurtha, he chose Marius as a member of his staff, perhaps to placate equestrian and Italian interests. One of the most influential figures in the history of the Roman Empire was Gaius Marius. As tribune, Marius proposed a bill affecting procedure in elections and legislative assemblies by narrowing the bridgesâthe gangway across which each voter passed to fill in and deposit his ballot tabletâas a result of which there was no longer room on the gangway for observers, normally aristocrats, who abused their position to influence an individualâs vote. Gaius Marius Facts – Ancient Rome For Kids Gaius Marius was born in 157 BC in Italy. And my neighbor Marcus is a plostrarius, a maker of the wagons and wagon wheels used to transport merchandise throughout the city and beyond. Timeline ImageSize = width:1000 height:1000 PlotArea = left:40 right:0 top:10 bottom:10 DateFormat = yyyy TimeAxis = orientation:vertical format:yyyy order:reverse Period = from:-160 till:-80 AlignBars = early ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:10 … This was the apex of Mariusâ success. His progressive approach to warfare and his political changes paved the way for the likes of Julius Caesar and Augustus who came after him. It was during this time period that Marius began to earn the respect of those in positions of power within the military and in Rome itself. but "tyrant" has a particular meaning in antiquity. He would then be elected five times in a row between 104BC and 100BC. Marius was a highly successful Roman general and military reformer. That title was his chip, as it made him feel like an outsider in Rome. None of Marius’ ancestors had ever been elected to a Roman political office, and he even claimed to have been raised in poverty, which meant that he was not seriously expected to become a person of importance.At an early age, he entered Rome’s legions and served with integrity. Of equestrian but outside roots, Marius would find his early attempts to climb the Roman social and political ladder difficult at best. Cooperating with equestrians in Africa and popular agitators in Rome, he openly criticized Metellus's conduct of the war. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Using the Legion as his route to fame, fortune and power, he would become among the most influential men of his day, an… In Africa he kept Jugurtha on the run, and in 105 Jugurtha was captured, betrayed by his ally, King Bocchus of Mauretaniaânot to Marius himself but to Sulla, considered a rather disreputable young aristocrat, who had joined Mariusâ staff as quaestor in 107. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In ancient sources, he is repeatedly characterised as having unending ambition and opportunism. Roman general and politician, consul seven times (107, 104-100, 86 BC), who was the first Roman to illustrate the political support that a successful general could derive from the votes of his old army veterans. Roy Lichtenstein | 10 Interesting Facts About The Pop Artist. Julius Caesar was a general, politician and scholar who became dictator of ancient Rome until he was assassinated in 44 B.C., inspiring a play by Shakespeare. Julia was born on Circa 130 B.C., in Rome, Italy, Roman Republic. This led to his death just seventeen days after his election at the age of 70. An interesting fact about Gaius Marius is that this was seen as one of the most important victories of Marius’s life. Bust of Gaius Marius, Caesar’s uncle. Although Plutarch claims that Marius' father was a labourer, this is almost certainly false since Marius had connections with the nobility in Rome, he ran for local office in Arpinum, and he had marriage relations with the local no… Gaius was born on Circa 157 B.C., in Arpinum, Roman Republic. The Marian reforms were reforms of the ancient Roman army implemented in 107 BC by the statesman Gaius Marius, for whom they were later named.The reforms originated as a reaction to the military and logistical stagnation of the Roman Republic in the late 2nd century BC. Gaius Marius was famously elected to the consul in Rome on seven different occasions, a record number of election victories at that time. Updates? As Mariusgradually captured Jugurthine strongholds and routed his armies, he tasked Sulla with negotiating with the vacillating King Bocchus of Mauretania whose allegiance was subject to change. – 15 March 44 B.C. After defeating Jugurtha in pitched battle, Metellus was less successful in later guerrilla warfare, and this failure was exaggerated by Marius in his public statements when at the end of 108 he returned to Rome to seek the consulship (chief magistracy). In recruiting fresh troops, Marius broke with custom, because of a manpower shortage, by enrolling volunteers from outside the propertied classes, which alone had previously been liable for service. His family were most likely very important people in the city of Arpinum but they were not included in the elite class of Rome. Youth and the First Civil War. The command in the war against Jugurtha (who was now Numidian king) was given to Quintus Metellus, and Marius was invited to join Metellusâ staff. 10 Major Accomplishments of Nelson Mandela. After he served honorably in Rome’s legions, he ascended the political ladder, fulfilling each post’s duty with distinction. He was even elected to the state’s highest post, the consulship, in 107 BC. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Gaius-Marius, Vassar College - Biography of Gaius Marius. During this time, Marius allowed Romans of all classes to join the army, including the poor. Centuries of military campaigning throughout the Mediterranean and increasing invasions and uprisings … This was seen as a big honour for those from poorer backgrounds and it considerably increased the size of his army, a fun fact about Gaius Marius. I hope that this article on Gaius Marius facts was helpful. If you are interested, visit the Historical People Facts Page! Marius perhaps did not realize the potency of their force, one that Sulla, Caesar, and Octavian employed with overpowering effect later. Trending Now. He did this but only survived one campaign before retiring. Marius had always had equestrian support, not only because his origins lay in that class but also because wars were bad for trade, and Marius had brought serious wars to an end. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Because of that, Marius was considered a novus homo, or new man, during the early part of his career. Gaius Marius. He was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic. Caesar's family was related to the revolt's leader, Gaius Marius, and joined his faction. His impact on the Empire was huge. Gaius Marius would go on to become of the most influential leaders in the history of Rome, and he had his first taste of the military in 134BC when he joined Scipio Aemilianus’s personal legion for an expedition to Numantia. Gaius Marius was married to Julia, who was the daughter of Gaius Julius Caesar II, the sister of Gaius Julius Caesar III and subsequently, the aunty of Julius Caesar. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'factsking_com-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_7',134,'0','0'])); After being successful in the army and making some good relationships with those in positions of power in Rome, Gaius Marius entered into politics for the first time in 119BC. Marius was the first "n… Caesar married Cornelia, the daughter of Cinna, one of the leading Marians, and was nominated for the priesthood of flamen dialis. Once he retired from power he was appalled to see his long time rival, Sulla rise to a position of great power. Then, by parlaying … He had to leave Italy after Sulla won the civil war against his uncle Gaius Marius. Around 157 BCE, Marius was born to a plebeian family in an Italian settlement called Ceraete, near Arpinum. Gaius Marius was a populist general, hyper-ambitious, who managed to get himself elected Consul seven times, at a time when Consul was a strictly term-limited position: once in your lifetime, and that was it. Following his father’s death, Marius the Younger took control of Rome with the support of the elder Marius’ allies. Julius Caesar was born on July 13, 100 B.C. eval(ez_write_tag([[320,50],'factsking_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_4',127,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[320,50],'factsking_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_5',127,'0','1'])); Gaius Marius was born in 157BC in the Italian town of Aprinum, which is located in Southern Latium. 3: Gaius Marius completed his first military service in 134BC, 4: Gaius Marius was elected to the Tribune of the Plebians, 5: Gaius Marius’s victory in the Jugurthan War, 6: He was elected to the consul a record 7 times, 7: He was responsible for a lot of military reforms, 9: Gaius Marius was married to Julius Caesar’s Aunt. Julius Caesar held the highest political rank of Consul in 59 BC. At the time, eagles were considered to be sacred animals and as such, finding this was viewed as a prophecy for the rest of Marius’s life, an interesting fact about Gaius Marius. Who was the eventual last dictator influenced by the actions of the Gracchi brothers? Her nephew, Julius Caesar gave an impassioned reading at her funeral. While there is no conclusive proof, it is speculated, given the path that Gaius Marius’s life would later take, that he was born into a family who was well-connected, at least locally. Marius’ only son died as consul fighting against Sulla in 82. He was not an aristocrat (patrician); he … When something was a little out of his grasp, he was willing to d… His final election, thus fulfilling the supposed prophecy from his teenage years, took place just before his death following his return to Rome in 86BC. They backed his candidacy for tribune (defender) of the plebs (common people) in 119. It is said that during one famous dinner, Scipio Aemilianus highlighted Gaius Marius as a future leader and this recognition was an early sign of what was to come for Marius. His widow survived until 69 and received the unusual honour, for a woman, of a public funeral oration by her nephew Julius Caesar, who later won great popularity by restoring to the Capitol … Plutarch says of him: And because of it, he was always striving for better. Marius was the first "n… From the outset Marius intended to use the appointment for his political advancement. The Roman populace liked him because he was not an aristocrat. He was certainly a nasty fellow (see Did Sulla commit murders? ) From the outset Marius intended to use the appointment for his political advancement. Lucius Cornelius Sulla (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), usually called Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.He was a praetor (a commander of an army) in 97 BC, and held the office of Consul twice. Gaius Julius Caesar, known by his cognomen Julius Caesar was born 12 or 13 July 100 B.C. He failed to secure the aedileship (control of markets and police) and was only just elected praetor (judicial magistrate) for the year 115 after bribing heavily, for which he was lucky to escape condemnation in court. Early career The ongoing conflict with Jugurtha, king of Numidia was a frustrating one for the Romans and it led to one of Gaius Marius’s greatest victories. Marius showed himself no unprincipled candidate for popular favour, for he vetoed a popular grain bill, and the following years offered him little promise of a conspicuous career. Author of. After a peaceful few years, chaos broke out in Rome in 91 BC when the tribune, Marcus Livius Drusus was assassinated. He had also contributed in initiating noted Roman reforms like providing employment to landless citizens, structuring and organizing large military groups into cohorts, etc. Our editors will review what youâve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Sulla captured Athens, sacked the city and slaughtered most of the citizens supporting Mithridates. Cooperating with equestrians in Africa and popular agitators in Rome, he openly criticized Metellus's conduct of the war. Gaius Marius : biography 157 BC – Marius died just seventeen days into his seventh consulship.Plutarch, Life of Marius, 45 & 46. With them, Marius defeated the Teutones at Aquae Sextiae (modern Aix-en-Provence, Fr.) His parents were Aurelia and Julius Caesar. As the use of violence, riots, and mob tactics were quickly to become the mainstay throughout the perilous era in Roman history, the Gracchi brothers quickly rose and fell from power. Let’s take a look at 10 interesting facts about Gaius Marius. Their actions set the stage for the rise of Marius, Sulla, and Pompey. Sulla had the incident engraved on his seal, provoking Mariusâ jealousy. The next year he governed Further Spain, campaigned successfully against bandits, and laid a foundation for great personal wealth through mining investments. The victory, however, was Mariusâ, and he was elected consul again for 104âat the start of which year he celebrated a triumph and Jugurtha was executedâin order to take command against an alarming invasion of the Cimbri and Teutones, who had defeated a succession of Roman armies in the north, the last in disgraceful circumstances in 105. One of the most notable changes that Gaius Marius made to the army was during the conflict in Africa with Jugurtha. When the two consuls tried to persuade the Senate to block the bill, Marius threatened them with imprisonment, and the bill was carried. The two married in 110 BC and it was this marriage that really established Gaius Marius as a significant mover in Roman society. He was superstitious and overwhelmingly ambitious, and, because he failed to force the aristocracy to accept him, despite his great military success, he suffered from an inferiority complex that may help explain his jealousy and vindictive cruelty. Sulla raised and ably led a cavalry contingent during the Numidian campaign, during which he won great popularity within the ranks for sharing the common legionary’s hardships. His wife was Julia, the aunt of Julius Caesar. As a young officer-cadet, along with Jugurtha (later king of Numidia), on Scipio Aemilianusâ staff in the Numantine War in Spain (134 bce), he, like Jugurtha, made an excellent impression on his commanding officer. Fellow of Exeter College, University of Oxford, 1928â69. 10 Major Accomplishments of Ronald Reagan. After that, he made a good marriage into a patrician family that, after long obscurity, was on the point of strong political revival. There has been a lot of speculation as to the cause of death of Gaius Marius but the most commonly held theory is that he had contracted pleurisy and had died as a result of that. Over Metellus's objections he returned to Rome to run for the consulship for 107. Gaius Marius, (born c. 157 bce, Cereatae, near Arpinum [Arpino], Latium [now in Italy]âdied January 13, 86 bce, Rome), Roman general and politician, consul seven times (107, 104â100, 86 bce), who was the first Roman to illustrate the political support that a successful general could derive from the votes of his old army veterans. He was first elected to the consul in 107BC and in this period he abolished land ownership qualifications for military service, this was one of his most significant political moves. Gaius Marius’s impact on the Roman Empire was undeniable. Just days into his reign, he began to lose focus and was showing signs of illness. For this war, Marius used fresh troops raised by Rutilius Rufus, consul in 105, and excellently trained in commando tactics by gladiatorial instructors. Gaius Marius. Marius was successful in his plan and his forces captured Jugurtha and brought him to Rome, where he would late die in prison. During his long service as a military commander, Gaius Marius received a lot of recognition for his innovative approach to the military, especially its recruitment. Gaius Marius. Gaius Marius the Younger was born on date, at birth place, to Gaius Marius and Julia Marius (born Caesar). After returning to Rome with Cinna to help defeat Octavian’s army, Marius was elected to the consul for a seventh, and what would be the final time, an interesting Gaius Marius fact. The two would be happily married for many years and they had one son together, Gaius Marius the Younger, who himself was elected to the consul in 82BC, though, he committed suicide the same year. As it was needed at that time, Marius increased the number of army personnel by using an unorthodox means. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'factsking_com-banner-1','ezslot_2',130,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'factsking_com-banner-1','ezslot_3',130,'0','1'])); One of the most popular legends surrounding the life of Gaius Marius is that of the eagle’s nest. Origins and Early Career of Marius . Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? It is said that this predicted his election to consul 7 times. Marius was a commoner who found his way up the political ladder in Rome through his exceptional military expertise. Eventually, Bocchus agreed to surrender Jugurtha personally to Sulla, which essentially marked the end of th… With Catulus he celebrated a joint triumph, but already there was bad feeling between them. Marius claimed the whole credit for the victory; Catulus and Sulla gave very different accounts of the event in their memoirs. He was elected an unprecedented 7 times as a consul, with the first coming in 107 BC.
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