# marginal productivity theory of distribution

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If wage rate falls to OP, firms will increase production by demanding more labour. In probability theory and statistics, the marginal distribution of a subset of a collection of random variables is the probability distribution of the variables contained in the subset. The marginal revenue productivity of fourth labourer is Rs. 100 for the first labour. Thus, from the above, we can conclude that a factor is demanded up to the limit where its marginal productivity is equal to prevailing price. Assumptions of marginal productivity theory: The marginal productivity theory depends on the assumptions illustrated below: 1. As the industry consists of a group of many firms, accordingly, its demand curve can be drawn with the demand curves of all the firms in the industry. As William Petty pointed out as early in 1662: Labour is the father and active principle of wealth, as lands are the mother. Share Your PPT File, Marginal Productivity Theory of Distribution (14 Criticisms). Share Your Word File Marginal productivity theory of distribution does not explain fully the determination of all factor prices. It means that as units of a factor of production are increased the marginal productivity goes on diminishing. 200 (constant). Thus, for industry, it is a theory of factor pricing while for a firm it is a factor demand theory. Content Guidelines 2. contributed for the development of this theory. Economics MCQ Questions and answers with easy and logical explanations. This theory assumes the supply of a factor to be fixed. We cannot think of such a situation in reality. Share Your PPT File. 5. But E. Chamberlin has shown that the theory can also be applied in the case of monopoly and imperfect competition, where the marginal price of a factor would be equal to its MRP (not to its VMP). It is assumed that various factors of production are fully employed with the exception of those who seek a wage above the value of their marginal product. All factors of production are assumed to be perfectly mobile. 6 a monopsony will employ that number of labourers at which their marginal wage is equal to MRP. Therefore, to get maximum profits, a firm will employ a factor upto a point where MRP is equal to price. Share Your PDF File Share Your Word File Other things remaining the same, as more and more labourers are employed by a firm, its marginal physical productivity goes or- diminishing. In such a situation the price of the commodity will fall and marginal revenue productivity curve will also shift to MRP2. 55 per labourers. The below mentioned article provides a close view on the marginal productivity theory of distribution. The summation of demand of all the firms shows demand curve of an industry. However, the determination of factor price under monopsony can be explained with the help of Fig. Therefore, monopsony refers to a situation of market where only a single firm provides employment to the factors. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. By multiplying the MPP with price of the product we get marginal revenue productivity. In the Fig. The marginal revenue product (MRP) of a worker is equal to the product of the marginal product of labour (MP) (the increment to output from an increment to labor used) and the marginal revenue (MR) (the increment to sales revenue from an increment to output): MRP = MP × MR. It is only due to this reason that a firm’s demand or labour depends on its marginal revenue productivity. However, one thing is certain that is the demand curve of industry also slopes downward from left to right. B. Clark, at the end of the 19th century, provides a general explanation of how the price (of the earnings) of a factor of production is determined. This is also the Marginal Revenue Productivity curve. For example, land can be substituted by labour and labour by capital. 12) is equal to its marginal revenue (VMP or MRP, Rs. In other words, it suggests some broad principles regarding the distribution of the national income among the four factors of production. The marginal productivity theory of distri­bution has been subjected to a number of criticisms: Firstly, main product is a joint product— produced by all the factors jointly. It indicates that there is only one buyer of the factors. The oldest and most significant theory of factor pricing is the marginal productivity theory. Privacy Policy3. Just as an entrepreneur maximises his total profits by equating MC and MR, he also maximises profits by equating the marginal product of each factor with its marginal cost. Assumptions of marginal productivity theory. 20). This is because different units of a factor of production are homogeneous, since they are of the same efficiency, they can be employed inter-changeable, and e.g., whether we employ the fourth man or the fifth man, his productivity shall be the same. Marginal Productivity Theory of distribution was developed by Clark, Wickseed and Walras. If we multiply the MPP of a factor by the price of the product, we would get the value of the marginal product (VMP) of that factor. It is assumed that the various factors prod… 3. their units can either be increased or decreased. If the firm employs fifth labourer, it will have to suffer losses of Rs. Here, it is Rs. This theory explains how rent, wages, interest and profit are determined. Table 12.1 shows that at 2 or 3 labourers, the VMP or MRP of labour is greater than wages; so the firm can earn more profits by employing an additional labour. Marginal productivity theory, in economics, a theory developed at the end of the 19th century by a number of writers, including John Bates Clark and Philip Henry Wicksteed, who argued that a business firm would be willing to pay a productive agent only what he adds to the firm’s well-being or utility; that it is clearly unprofitable to buy, for example, a man-hour of labour if it adds less to its buyer’s income … Finally, the theory assumes that the payment to each factor according to its marginal productivity completely exhausts the total product, leaving neither a surplus nor a deficit at the end. The marginal productivity of factor affects its reward, but the reward of a factor may also affect its marginal productivity, both are inter-connected manually. In the fig. So under perfect competition VMP of a factor = MRP of that factor.].

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