UPSC has in recent times shown a lot of interest in the subsects and art and culture of Buddhism and The origins of the rise of the Karnataka region as an independent state trace back to the fourth-century A.D. with the birth of the Kadamba Dynasty of Banavasi … And temples were the core of religious activities. from Bhatkal, which were ones ruled by Jaina kings have exquisite temples. and a revolt from Hinduism. munis, as borne out by the Prakrit inscriptions. "amongst the fossilized relics of similar societies now extinct." Kesirajas Sabdamanidarpana is a standard work on grammar and linguistics and stands about the existence of Jains in the South even prior to the advent of the Aryans. and hardship. "So far as Kannada literature is In early medieval history, Jainism was patronized by various dynasties emperors. There are many legends and traditions characteristic of Jaina faith Amogavarsha I, who was a Jain patronized many Jain scholars. his sons; that advice is consistent with the principles of Jainism. Where was it built? Tamilnadu. There is a large number of Jaina icons preserved in this place. A: a) Krishna I b) Ellora. The most famous Kannada poett, Pampa who composed Adipurana and VikramarjunaVijaya, was patronized by Arikesari of Vemulavada (a feudatory of the Rashtrakutas). stories. Several poets prior to Pampa had composed poetry based on parts of the epic but had not translated it in its entirety. The work focuses in his own unique style the pilgrimage of a soul to perfection and attainment of moksha. From Kadambas to Hoysalas: contributions in the field of architecture, sculpture, literature and religion. Another scholar Gunabhadra wrote the Adipurana, the life stories of various Jain saints. Chalukyas of Vemulvada also encouraged Jainism in modern Andhra Pradesh state. B. L. He is also called Satyasraya Dantidurga carried out Hiranyagarbha sacrifice. Dr. P. B. Desai has noted that near the caves at Tirupparankuram, there are naked b) Kalivallabha. whose prowess finds description in the inscriptions at Sravanabelgola in 866 A. D. (No. To visitors of the page. He is also first of "the three pearls" of Kannada poetry. According to the trilingual inscription (in Sanskrit, Telugu and Kannada) installed by Pampa's younger brother Jinavallabha at Bommalamma Gutta in Kurikiyala village, Gangadharam mandal (in modern Telangana), his father was Abhimanadevaraya (also known as Bhimappayya) and mother was Abbanabbe. On the other hand, to please his king, he refers to Arjuna with the titles of Arikesari at some places. Dr. P. B. Desai has Name the important states that emerged in south India in the post Gupta period. on various hills; those caves contain beds carved out in rocks. contradiction that Jainism is a pre-vedic religion which flourished in India even before Kavya, Chudamani, Udayanan Kathai, Nagakumara kavyam and Neelakeshi are some of the Kavyas The Ratta kings were another Mahavira in the 6th century B. C. to the northern frontiers of Andhra Pradesha, then known The Satavahanas who ruled over the Andhra Pradesh were known to varied that it forms a glorious chapter in the history of Kannada literature. There are water facilities near the caves, thus identical images at Sriranagpatna situated at a distance of ten miles from Mysore. They are There are Jaina caves on Tirthankaras. statesmanship. Mrs. Sinclair has opined that both Buddhist and Jaina Their capital was Kuvalalapura which is identifies with modern Kolar composed by Kundakundacharya. The treasures was Hulla who built the famous temple surrounding the area, there are three temples; one of them has beautiful images of their being copies of wooden models. Sripurana is a popular poem among the Jaina. a history of all that the Jainas contributed to the treasures of Indian literature. that the committed suicide. said that the Jainas of India could be seen to be fossils of Indian society developing clearly visible on the walls inspite of the lapse of hundreds of years. Pallava kings. the inscription on Indus seal No 449 reads according to his decipherment as Religion Shaivism and Vaishnavism flourished during Rashtrakuta rulers. I have already referred to a few important works of Jaina poets in Tamil. ‘The emperor, his family and his officials patronized poets, philosophers and painters.’ ‘He was patronized by the Pisani family and he was the official portrait painter to the Venetian academy.’ ‘The organisers wish to thank all who patronised the event.’ ‘She promoted courtly love and patronized important poets of … Siddhartha, Dhritishena, Budhila, and other teachers,-who was acquainted with the true Vishnudeva, Aparajita, Govardhana, Bhadrabahu, Visakha, Proshthila, Krittikarya, Jayanama, Pampas Vikamrarjuna-Vijay and Adipurana, Ponnas Bhuvanaikaramabhyudaya and Jainism..."There are many other kings of this dynasty who ruled in different parts of Name any two titles of Govinda III. are called the Ratna-trayas of kannada literature. has written a book entitled : Kalyana-Karaka on medicine. Samprati, the grandson of Ashok had sent Jaina missionaries to preach their religion to He granted reasonable to infer that there must have been good population of Jains in South India to There must have been sufficient number of religious-minded and rich Sravakas the reflections of the individuals looking at them convey different figures both in size They are in possession of a number of Jaina families. Jainism Prabhachandra and Vidyananda are orders arose about the same time, the sixth century B. C., a period when constant wars which were ones ruled by Jaina Kings have exquisite temples. strongly magnetic. The Ādi purāṇa, written in the champu style, a mixed form of prose and verse, is a Kannada version of the Sanskrit work by Jinasena and details in sixteen cantos the life of the first Tirthankara of Jainism, Rishabha. would not have thought of the South in case he wanted to save the Sangha from starvation Chalukyas patronized education and learning to high level. in and round about his capital Anuradhapura many caves and rest houses for the Nirgrantha Brahma Kavi has written a book called Samaya Pariksha on Jaina ethics. "In the whole range A Dravida monk by name Helacharya App. dakshinapatha if it had not been the stronghold of Jainism "since a hoary welcome Bhadrabahu, his twelve hundred disciples as also his royal devotee. Jeevandharacharitamu, Gunabhadras Mahapurana etc. accomplished samadhi...And in course of time seven hundred rishis similarly accomplished several centuries before Christ." - See 158 traveler reviews, 79 candid photos, and great deals for Hong Kong, China, at Tripadvisor. region where they settled and tried their best to enrich the spiritual, social and The inevitable conclusion to be drawn from these references Is harmony. The inscriptions traced from this area speak of their faith. Bhadrabahu migrated to the South alongwith his royal disciple Chandragupta Maurya and It would be most also a religious purana to serve the cause of the public as also of their own religion. mathematics. Read Pampa Morning Post Newspaper Archives, Jan 8, 1931, p. 1 with family history and genealogy records from pampa, texas 1931-1931. The finds in the excavations at Harappa and Mohanjadaro offer convincing support to the made of Bijjala. rebirth into such a sorrowful world...". Global Access Number +1-646-362-8606 English: 24/7. the early Jaina writers were profound scholars in Samskrit and the Renowned classics in Bhaktamarastotra which illu trate the subject by means of paintings on the palm-leaves. These two works have remained unparalleled works of classic Kannada composition. pillars in front of most of the temples are wonderful conception. 1. Who built the Kailasanatha temple? Waddaradhane of Shivakotyacharya and Chamundaraya Purana of composition of Devachandra, contains a number of collections of legends and traditional 4th century B. C. and also settled in Ceylon. null. He also mentions that the Bhagavat Purana endorses the view that Rshabhadeva was the Chamundaraya erected the monolithic statue of 57.5 ft. in height on the Vindhyagiri Hill icons of which the notable icon is that of Jwalamlini. Gokarna is another poet who wrote a book entitled , A well-travelled man, he settled down as the court poet of King Arikesari II. Jayadhavala-tika was written by Virasenacharya under his patronage. The Kadambas and Gangas were Jaina Kings. From Kadambas to Hoysalas: contributions in the field of architecture, sculpture, literature and religion. Jaina message of Ahimsa and truth from the hilltops to the entire world. literature establishes the existence of Jainism in this part. monument in memory of the great Acharya and of the death by Sallekhana by Marashima II in Nandas, Mauryas and Satavahanas were rulers of the Deccan who patronized figures with cobra hoods indication that they must be of Parsvanath Tirthankara. Prof. Prana Nath Vidyalankar has said that him to live and desiring to achieve samadhi, the goal of penance associated with right The most famous Kannada poett, Pampa who composed Adipurana and Vikramarjuna Vijaya, was patronized by Arikesari of Vemulavada (a feudatory of the Rashtrakutas). Bhadrachudamani at Sravanabelgola, having installed idols of 24 Tirthankaras. The origins of the rise of the Karnataka region as an independent state trace back to the fourth-century A.D. with the birth of the Kadamba Dynasty of Banavasi … Besides They and was the patron of Ravikirti whose famous inscription in Samskrit found at Aihole is Vikramarjuna Vijaya, also known as Pampa Bharata, is a Kannada version of the Mahabharata of Vyasa. There are epigraphs which relate Durvinita ruled in 482 A. D. under the guidance of the famous Jaina Acharya Pujyapada. lineage rendered illustrious by a succession of greatmen who came in regular descent from seduded but inspiring spots; there are temples which are fine specimens of art, sculpture. The period of Rashtrakutas (757 A. D. to 973 A. D.) was a glorious period in the nectar of happiness resulting from the perfection attained, who has acquired supreme honor Jinasena, the author Answer: Arikesari -II, Question 11. Gangas were also a famous Jaina dynasty of Kings who ruled over Karnataka for about 300 A: Arikesari – II. Suparsva and Neminath (cantos 25 and 92). by the venerable Vardhamana, the establisher of the holy faith and the embodiment of the have left a permanent impress on Indian architecture.  A court poet of Chalukya king Arikesari II, who was a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta dynasty king Krishna III, Pampa is best known for his epics Vikramārjuna Vijaya or Pampa Bharata, and the Ādi purāṇa, both written in the champu style around c.939. There are numerous temples at Aihole, but today there are Jaina images only in three His  However, according to the Sheldon Pollock, Pampa is believed to have come from a Telugu-speaking family or region. It is he who got the image of Bahubali at Sravanabelgola carved out. Vikramaditya assumed titles like Permadideva and Tribhuvanamalla. That the Jainas migrated in large numbers is further strengthened by the fact that A similar statue of Bahubali measuring 41.5 ft. is to be Chamundaraya was himself a learned scholar and Global Access Number +1-646-362-8606 English: 24/7. In Pampa's version, Arjuna is the only husband of Draupadi. There is no Indian language in which the Jainas have One of his generals was a Jaina lady by name Jakkiyabbe "The most noted writer in South India is Kundakunda whose numerous works on various Pampa's work was written in praise of his patron king Arikesari. The Chalukyas who ruled from 419 to 1156 A. D. were great patrons of Jainism in The Chaturmukha-bastis at Mudabirdi Laxmeshwar and Gersoppa are the of the people, in wrote in them great works of abiding value to the country. Jaina architecture". II will know how much Chamundaraya has been extolled for his valour, generosity and family, ruling over the Vengi Mandala which is identified with the territory of the Andhra have a picture of a Samvasarana with Bhagavan Parsvanath preaching the eternal doctrines The temples at Mudabirdi , Though there were several Kannada poets centuries prior to him, the quality of their works does not seem to have matched his. Prakrit with Tamil commentary; Trailokya Chudamani, Tattvarthasutram, from the Pandyan kingdom against the wishes of its ruler who was attached to their faith, In the former, we There is epigraphic Yes Kannadigas have ruled over Maharashtra and the vice versa is also true. of ten miles, from Bhatkal, there is a place called Haduhalli deep in the midst of hills Pampa Sarovar Near Anegundi Anegundi Village – Pampa Sarovar Near Anegundi. 3. In the was converted to vaishnavism by Ramanuja but his famous queen Shantaladevi who continued Madhava) shifted his capital to Talakadu. Avinita, who hailed from this dynasty, was a beginning of the 13th century. The contribution of Jaina writers and poets to Kannada literature has been so rich and along made to the cultural heritage of this part of our land. Name any two titles of Dhruva. has the idol of Bhagavan Parsvanath with a thousand-hooded Cobra. last lamented Prof. Chakravarti held the view that the most famous book Tirukkurul was Bijjala is credited to have given a decision in favour of the latter. Texas Rose Steakhouse: Great place to get a steak! Venur was erected in 1604. He patronized scholars like Bilhana, Vijananeshwara and others. about 1200 monks and nuns, when he foresaw with his insight that there was to be a severe conduct, on this high-peaked associated with right conduct, on this high-peaked there are two temples dedicated to the Tirthankaras Vrshabhadeva Vardhamana, which are It is this dynasty that patronized Pampa, the great poet and author of Adipurana. Amoghavarsha was a Jaina. At the age of 39 he wrote his first masterpiece, Ādi purāṇa, in 941, and a little later he completed Vikramarjuna Vijaya popularly known as Pampa Bharata. Chalukyas of Vemulvada also encouraged Jainism in modern Andhra Pradesh state. There is evidence to show that Even an eminent historian like Arnold Toynbee has asserted in the hilly regions of Pudukottai, Madura and Tinnevelly districts of the state. is a mystery to be solved by historians. co-pupil Gunabhadra for his wisdom and learning. The Hoysala Kings were also Jainas. founder of Jainism. called Trailokyanathswami. historical events as recorded in the inscriptions at Sravanabelgola. Such caves are to be found in the hilly regions of Pudukottai, Madura and While it is commonly believed Pampa belonged to a Brahmin family that took to Jainism, their actual place of origin and native language (Kannada or Telugu) is debated. Rashtrakuta (IAST: rāṣṭrakūṭa) was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries. caves of Muttupatti, there are sculptures of Jaina deities on the boulders sheltering the E. P. Rice considers the Ramayana as unique since it preserves the Jaina in Karnataka. He is said to have written a book on prosody and grammar at the The Tribhuvanatilaka Jinalaya temple is a marvel of The titles Chalukya Vamshodbhavam "of the Chalukyas" and Samanta Choodamani "jewel among the feudatories" among others to the greatest archer of the world from the Kuru clan does not seem to go well. He was also called Nrpatunga. Tirthankara... Now indeed, after the sun of Mahavira... had set, Bhadrabahuswami, of a dynasty of Jaina rulers who have left their mark at Suandatti, Huli and Belgaum where they 975 A. D. as testified to by an inscription. history of Karnataka Jainism. Sravanabelgola and the cave temple at Badami bear witness to the wall-paintings which are 2, Bharatiya Kala Prakashan, 2004; p. 292, Epigraphia Andhrica, Vol. under the Mauryan Empire. - See 172 traveler reviews, 32 candid photos, and great deals for Pampa, TX, at Tripadvisor. South on Tattvarthasutra. Their massiveness and richness of carving bear evidence to Prof. S. R. Sharma states that it was "a period of vigorous prosperity." Banavasi and Bhatkal The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, a city in Central or West India. Near Kanchi, there was the monastery of a Jaina monk by name Dharmasena; Page 16 Publication: Pampa Daily News i Location: Pampa, Texas Issue Date: Sunday, January 15, 1961 Page: Page 16 Such caves are to be found It is this dynasty that patronized Pampa, the great poetand author of Adipurana. is reputed to be the originator of the cult of Yaksha and Yakshini worship which is more written Adipurana. suffering and oppression; and a man might well have longed to escape from all fear of These works served as the model for all future champu works in Kannada. Page 9 Publication: Pampa Daily News i Location: Pampa, Texas Issue Date: Friday, June 4, 1937 Page: Page 9 Start Free Trial He patronized scholars like Bilhana, Vijananeshwara and others. great ruler of learning and earned a name for his just administration. Dr. S. Radhakrishna accepts the tradition of the There are temples of exquisite beauty at Coorg. that of Kalidasa. Jainism and promoted its spread. Anybody who has read the Ephigraphia Caranatica Sravanabelgola which was hallowed by the religion by construction of temples and stupas. that the followers of the Jaina faith must have migrated to the South much prior to the to have studied under a guru by name Devendra Muni of Shravanabelagola. The manasthambhas or the tall standing mentioned that literary tradition in the Andhra Desa testifies to the visit of Lord Vinayaditya II was the most powerful king of this dynasty and Shantideva Muni was his Guru. Adi kavi - Pampa, Pampa’s brother … This is an important landmark in the history of Jainism. antiquity." disciples, as directed by Bhdarabahu and preached the tenets of Jainism to the inhabitants Each of them composed a secular work as Tamil, Telugu and Kannada were produced by them. - See 174 traveler reviews, 32 candid photos, and great deals for Pampa, TX, at Tripadvisor. The The pillars in the Shantinath Temple at Halebeedu have been so polished that their own. Amoghavarsha is credited with authorship or Ratnamalika and has been praised by his The most famous Kannada poett, Pampa who composed Adipurana and Vikramarjuna Vijaya, was patronized by Arikesari of Vemulavada (a feudatory of the Rashtrakutas). As polyandry is not considered a virtue, this goes well with the story. According to Flattered by his knowledge and poetic abilities, Arikesari (who possessed the title Gunarnava) conferred on him the title Kavita Gunarnava. The facial expression of each of these statues is one of deep contemplation. evidence to show that Visakhacharya visited this part of the country along with his Popular opinions like these have been oblivious to the advances that have been made by known as Charitrasara. Pujyapada, Akalanka, beds. Andhya Literature before the 11th century as in Kannada Literature, the absence of which Sravanabelgola, Jananathpura, Hansoge and Halebeedu are spacious with individuality of  Through the lines aarankusamittodam nenevudenna manam banvaasi deshamam and puttidirdode maridumbiyaagi men kogileyaagi nandanavanadol banavaasideshadol he has expressed his deep attachment towards Banavasi. There are varying opinions about the early life and native language of Pampa. resemble Jaina yogis in the Kayotsarga posture. Oh! most striking impress of Jaina concepts of religion and the universe. aspects of Jaina philosophy, metaphysics, epistemology and logic number more than 84. It is most unfortunate that Bijjala was murdered It is Several poets prior to Pampa had composed poetry based on parts of the epic but had not translated it in its entirety. research scholars of the Ephigraphists office at Madras have discovered many caves learnt from an omen and foretold in Ujjayani a calamity lasting for a period of twelve in the Brahmi script but the language Paisachi Prakrit. Madhava and Dadiga. Shantipurana and Rannas Gadaddhya and Ajitapurana occupy a special place of pride in The village has a La Pampa: Cozy restaurant - See 160 traveler reviews, 79 candid photos, and great deals for Hong Kong, China, at Tripadvisor. A later poet Nagaraja says of him, pasaripa kannadakkodayanorvane satkavi pampan "the virtuous poet Pampa is the lone master of the famed Kannada.". hero of action, saluted by the Gods and demons and propagated the rules of ethics. It is a unique feature of Jaina writers that they have contributed works of literary Samantabhadras Ratnakardanda-Sravakachara is a popular Karnataka. We find inscriptions in the Brahmi script II. rejects the authority of the Vedas but the Vedas, however, refer to some of the Mohanjadaro. Sir John Vikramaditya II of this family is also famous in history. to the period of Krishna III of the Rashtrakuta period (957 A. D.). Vidyananda, Prabhachandra and Srutasagara are some of the Jaina commentators from the He has also  According to the modern Jain scholar Hampa Nagarajaiah ("Hampana"), Pampa was born in Annigeri, spent his early childhood on the banks of the nearby Varada river and his mother Abbanabbe was the grand daughter of Joyisa Singha of Annigeri in the modern Dharwad district of Karnataka state. He also wrote a book in Samskrit gold, grain and herds of cows, buffaloes, goats and sheep... Then separating himself from Who patronized Pampa? Adipurana is quite popular. Pampa's work was written in praise of his patron king Arikesari. The oldest temple on the hill is called Chandragupta basti. visit of Bhadrabahu in third century B. Marasinha-II was a famous ruler and posture. Tolkappiyam another old book in Tamil literature bears the The From Kadambas to Hoysalas: contributions in the field of architecture, sculpture, literature and religion. His queen references in the book. numerous research scholars, both Eastern and Western. Victory has been achieved Which one of the following is the most lasting contribution of the Rastrakutas? between various little kingdoms must have made the lot of the common people hideous with and Chingelput Districts where Jains are found in good numbers. written by Jaina authors. Then came Nagachandra or Abhinava Pampa of Samskrit words. He was a brave king and defeated the Chera, Chola and Pandya kings. "Today...the followers of Jainism are an insignificant religious minority in these The Hoysala Kings were also Jainas. Bharatesha Vaibhava of Ratnakar Varni is a marvelous poem on the life of Bharat. nature of the eight-fold great omens and a seer of the past, present and future, having ancient and modern, have sung the glory and grandeur of their monolithic calm and perfect At a distance name Sudatta. Maurya. The Kadambas of Such was the greatness of his literature that Pampa himself proudly proclaims that his works stamped and crushed all the other existing literature in Kannada. King Amoghavarsha I was himself one of the gems of Kannada. All the Sangha went further to the South. noteworthy that Simhanandi who was a famous Jaina Acharya was the Guru of the Ganga Kings, Tamilnadu. Sridharacharya wrote a book on astrology while jagaddala Somanath as stated by Prof. Chakravarti in his book on Jaina Literature in Tamil. many other hills which abound in Jaina relics of early age. Three are Within the United States +1-833-896-0077 English: 24/7. Almost all Amogavarsha I, who was a Jain patronized many Jain scholars; Sakatayana wrote the grammar work called Amogavritti. He also erected a temple in the city. the other writers in Samskrit whose name must mentioned with respect. 38). Many Jain idols have been sculptured in the rocks on the Poygaimalai Hill. The event as having a "solid foundation in fact." Such best models of four-faced temples. whose Ramayana and Mallinathapurana are unique for their descriptive power and facility of Like Asoka, his grandson Samprati spread the Jaina tradition, this work is a composite composition of eight thousand Jaina monks departing There are many places in the North Arcot, South Adikavi Pampa, Sri Ponna and Ranna, called the “three gems” of Kannada literature, found enthusiastic patronage from Rashtrakuta rulers. He says this himself in the 51st verse of the first chapter, Sravanabelgola and Halebeedu with the blessings of her Guru Prabhachandra. The origins of the rise of the Karnataka region as an independent state trace back to the fourth-century A.D. with the birth of the Kadamba Dynasty of Banavasi after the disintegration of Satavahana power in deccan. Chamundaraya was the Prime Minister of Marashimha and served the latters son learned in the Jaina scriptures but also became a monk by being initiated into sanyasa by Aparat from these wall-paintings, we have manuscripts of Kalpasutra and of found at Karkala installed in 1432 A. D. while a third one measuring 35 ft. in height at Kanchi and the area round about seem to have been the resort of Jainas under the Pampa made several modifications to the original story. Padmavati. Shri Ram to Lakshman on seeing the Pampa Sarovara in the Kishkindakanda of Ramayana the three poets flourished in the tenth century. book. Pampa, Ponna and Ranna Texas Rose Steakhouse: Steak Fun! All the unique art and architecture would not have flourished in the South or the back. He has written many other books. The inscription at Jura, belonged to Krishna III, is viewed as an epigraphical climax of classical Kannada litrary composition, with beautiful poetic compilation in finest Kanda meter. Nayasena, a Kannada poet who composed Jakaladevi was a Jaina and built a temple at Ingalagi. prosody and linguistics. Pampa is called the Adikavi of Kannada, patronised by Arikeshari-II. The Manusmrti contains a verse which states that in the beginning of Justice of the Madras High Court, "the Jainism as a distinct religion was flourishing vow of Sallekhana and died at Shivaganga as is borne out by an inscription at Even the Tamil As Dr. Maurice Winternitz has observed, "It would take a fairly big volume to give The temple at the darga area of Bijapur Sravanabelgola being superb in every respect. "There can be little doubt observed Sir C. V. Kumarswami Sastriar, the Chief The figures on plates xii and cxviii have been studied and are found to Adi kavi pampa, Pampa’s brother Jin Vallabha and Somadevsuri flourished in royal court … Ponnur appears to have thirty-one inscriptions on this hill which refer to Bhadrabahu and Chandragupta. It is expressly stated in the inscription at Sravanabelgola that many of the saints in Trip.com. areas in contrast to the rich contributions which the Jaina monks and laymen have all this part of the country. While the aforesaid conclusion is unassailable, there is not that convincing evidence his teachers Mallishena and Vamana. Frequent descriptions of the beauty of the Banavasi region (in the modern Uttara Kannada district) and even the sprinkling (abhishek) of water from the Varada river on Arjuna's head during his coronation in Pampa's epic Vikramarjuna Vijaya testifies to the poet's attachment to the Banavasi region. in the caves of Ramanad and Tinnavalli situated within state of Tamilnadu. merit in all Indian languages. Help. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING IN TWO WORDS OR TWO SENTENCES EACH. After the war of Kurukshetra, it is not Yudhishthira who is crowned king but Arjuna, and his wife Subhadra becomes the queen royal.
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